The Hunchback of Notre Dame, also known as Der Glöckner von Notre Dame ("The Bellringer of Notre Dame") is a musical with music by Alan Menken, lyrics by Stephen Schwartz, and book by James Lapine. The musical is based on the 1996 Disney film, The Hunchback of Notre Dame, which was inspired by the 1831 Victor Hugo novel of the same name.
The musical premiered in 1999 in Berlin, Germany, produced by Walt Disney Theatrical, the company's first musical to premiere outside the U.S. It ran for three years, becoming one of Berlin's longest-running musicals.
The English-language musical The Hunchback of Notre Dame debuted with a revised libretto at La Jolla Playhouse in San Diego, California on October 28, 2014, running until December 7, 2014.
The show subsequently opened at the Paper Mill Playhouse in Millburn, New Jersey on March 4, 2015. This production brought more changes to the libretto, which is the third and final version. The show closed on April 5, 2015, after it was announced that it would not have a Broadway transfer.
The Hunchback of Notre Dame has been highly praised due to its darker, more mature tone and its gothic set design, among other things.
Original German Production Edit
The musical opened on June 5, 1999, for the opening of the Musicaltheater Berlin (now Theater am Potsdamer Platz (DE)), Berlin. After a successful run, it closed in June 2002. Directed by Lapine, the German translation was by Michael Kunze, choreography by Lar Lubovitch, set design by Heidi Ettinger, costume design by Sue Blane, lighting by Rick Fisher, sound by Tony Meola and projections by Jerome Sirlin.
This was Disney's first musical to premiere outside the US, and it became one of Berlin's longest-running musicals to date. As with Beauty and the Beast and The Lion King, Der Glöckner Von Notre Dame opened three years after the release of the movie it is based on.
The musical is a darker, more gothic adaptation of the film. According to translator Michael Kunze, he was " 'campaigning to allow Esmeralda to die at the end, as she does in the book. There was a feeling that the audience would be depressed if Esmeralda dies. I feel that a European audience would see this as a very romantic ending ... two lost souls finally find each other. People will cry, but they'll be moved. And it is a very romantic ending.' " The producers wanted to see how "preview audiences react before making the final decision."
An original cast recording was recorded in German.
In 2008, Stephen Schwartz said, "I think we're starting up Hunchback of Notre Dame, hopefully, next year ." In a November 2010 interview, Alan Menken confirmed that he was working on an American production: "We're bringing that one back, too! ... we are still using James Lapine's book."
The Hunchback of Notre Dame had a workshop in February 2014, and its North American premiere at San Diego's La Jolla Playhouse, where it ran from October 28 to December 7 of 2014. In addition to the core cast, the production featured Sacra-Profana, a local chorus of 32 singers that remain onstage during the entire show. This production transferred to Paper Mill Playhouse in Millburn, NJ with the 19-person core cast with three new cast members, Jeremy Stolle, Dashaun Young, and Joseph J. Simeone, who replaced San Diego locals Brian Smolin, William Thomas Hodgson, and Lucas Coleman respectively. The Paper Mill production also feaured a new choir, the local Continuo Arts Symphonic Chorus. This production ran from March 4 through April 5, 2015. Although there were rumors of a Broadway transfer, it was announced after closing that this would not occur.
The structure of the show was finalized and turned into a licensable work.
Der Glöckner von Notre Dame Edit
- Act I
The musical opens in 1482 Paris, where Clopin, an old gypsy beggar, sings of the bells of the Cathedral of Notre Dame ("The Bells of Notre Dame") and tells the story of the Hunchback of Notre Dame. The story begins as three gypsies sneak illegally into Paris, but are ambushed by a squadron of soldiers working for the Minister of Justice, Claude Frollo. A gypsy woman attempts to flee with her baby, but Frollo catches her and kills her outside of Notre Dame, intending to kill the deformed baby. However, he is stopped by the Archdeacon and accuses him of murdering the gypsy woman. Frollo accepts the Archdeacon's offer to raise the child in the cathedral's bell tower, naming him Quasimodo.
Twenty years later, Quasimodo is the bell ringer of Notre Dame and has become a kind young man with three gargoyles - Antoine, Charles, and Loni - as his friends. They encourage him to attend the annual Festival of Fools, but Frollo arrives and forbids Quasimodo to leave the tower, while the gargoyles urge him to disobey and venture out ("Sanctuary"). After Frollo leaves, Quasimodo decides to go out for just one day ("Out There").
While the Parisians continue their preparations for the festival, Clopin, King of the Gypsies, prepares his gypsies for the festival at their underground hide-out, the Court of Miracles ("Balancing Act"). Their attention is taken by a newcomer, a young gypsy dancer named Esmeralda. Meanwhile, Captain Phoebus arrives in Paris excited about his new promotion as Captain of the Guard ("Rest and Recreation"). He flirts with a young girl but is suddenly interrupted by a fleeing gypsy accused of theft. The gypsy pleads innocence but Frollo arrives and orders his soldiers to arrest the gypsy. Frollo tells Phoebus that the city has become overrun by gypsies and that he plans to find the Court of Miracles and eliminate them all.
As the Festival begins ("Topsy Turvy"), Quasimodo arrives in disguise so Frollo will not recognize him. Frollo crosses paths with Esmeralda while dancing for the crowd. Afterwards, people begin to audition for the King of Fools. Thinking Quasimodo is in costume, Esmeralda pulls Quasimodo onstage and the crowd crowns Quasimodo as their king, only to be humiliated. Esmeralda intervenes and openly defies Frollo's orders to let the hunchback suffer. Esmeralda comes to Quasimodo's rescue and Frollo orders Phoebus to arrest her but Esmeralda disappears. Frollo scolds Quasimodo and sends him back to the cathedral.
Esmeralda follows Quasimodo but Phoebus catches her inside the cathederal. Frollo arrives and interrogates her but the Archdeacon orders Frollo to leave, because those in the cathedral are protected by the law of sanctuary. Esmeralda prays for her people and the down-trodden ("God Help the Outcasts"). Meanwhile, Frollo orders Phoebus to post a guard at every door to ensure that Esmeralda does not escape.
Esmeralda follows Quasimodo to the bell tower and is captivated by the view of the city ("On Top of the World"). To repay Esmeralda for rescuing him, Quasimodo offers to show her a way out of the cathedral. Before leaving, Esmeralda gives him an amulet leading to the Court of Miracles should he ever need to find her, and she also kisses him on the cheek. After Esmeralda leaves, Quasimodo expresses his feelings, as he has been touched by Esmeralda's kindness ("Heaven's Light"). Frollo begins to realize his lustful feelings for Esmeralda and wishes to be free of them to escape eternal damnation ("Hellfire").
Discovering that Esmeralda escaped, Frollo asks Quasimodo where she is, but he says that he does not know. Frollo orders a city-wide manhunt to find Esmeralda. Realizing that Frollo has fallen into madness, Phoebus defies Frollo, who orders his execution. Pheobus flees while Frollo and his men begin to search the city ("Esmeralda"). Phoebus falls into the river below after being shot by an arrow but Esmeralda rescues him.
- Act II
The soldiers continue searching the city ("City Under Siege"). Esmeralda rescues Phoebus and tells him to seek sanctuary at Notre Dame while she returns to the Court of Miracles. Meanwhile, the gargoyles convince Quasimodo that Esmeralda finds him romantically intriguing, and they reassure him about her safety ("A Guy Like You"). The Archdeacon brings Phoebus to the bell tower and Phoebus, knowing Quasimodo to be a friend of Esmeralda's, asks Quasimodo to hide him.
Frollo returns and discovers that Quasimodo helped Esmeralda escape after asking him. Frollo tells Quasimodo that he knows where the Court of Miracles is and intends to attack at dawn. After Frollo leaves, Phoebus comes out of hiding and asks Quasimodo to help him find the Court of Miracles and warn Esmeralda. Quasimodo refuses to leave the cathedral again but Phoebus and the gargoyles teach Quasimodo the value of devotion and selflessness ("Out of Love").
Using Esmeralda's amulet as their guide, Quasimodo and Phoebus find the Court of Miracles. The gypsies assume them to be Frollo's spies but Esmeralda assures them that the two men are friends. Phoebus tells the gypsies about Frollo's plan and Clopin orders the gypsies to prepare to leave. Esmeralda and Phoebus decide to leave the city together while Quasimodo, heartbroken, watches Esmeralda leave with the man she truly loves ("Out of Love" (Reprise)). However, Frollo's army appears and captures them, with Frollo revealing that he had followed Quasimodo.
Esmeralda refuses Frollo's offer for freedom in exchange for becoming his mistress. Quasimodo, tied up in the bell tower, refuses to help and tells the gargoyles to leave him ("Made of Stone"). As dawn approaches, Esmeralda awaits her execution in the dungeon with Phoebus hoping that one day the world will be a better place ("Someday").
Witnessing Frollo burning Esmeralda at the stake, Quasimodo gives in to his anger and rescues her. Phoebus ignites a mutiny and leads the citizenry to fight with Frollo's soldiers. Quasimodo calls upon the saints and the gargoyles before using a cauldron filled with molten cascade to make sure no one gets inside. Frollo, however, breaks into the cathedral. Esmeralda dies after thanking him for being a good friend. Quasimodo breaks down beside her body as Frollo comes into the room to kill him with a dagger. Quasimodo fights back and after a long struggle, he throws Frollo over the balcony to his death. The gargoyles comfort Quasimodo and tell him the world is full of good as well as evil. The Parisians watch as Quasimodo carries Esmeralda's body through the square with Phoebus by his side. Clopin appears again and asks what makes a monster and what makes a man ("Grand Finale").
The Hunchback of Notre Dame Edit
Many years ago, orphaned brothers Jehan and Claude Frollo were taken in at Notre Dame. Jehan grew to be mischievous while Claude remained pious. After Jehan was caught with a gypsy woman, he was expelled from Notre Dame. Frollo eventually became the archdeacon of Notre Dame. One day, Frollo received a letter from Jehan; the two met in secret, where Jehan, on his deathbed, gave Frollo his deformed baby before dying. As Frollo prepared to kill the child, he suddenly felt as he was being tested by God. Thus, he instead saved the child, naming it Quasimodo, or "half-formed", and raising it in Notre Dame ("The Bells of Notre Dame")
In the present day (in the year 1542), Quasimodo is now a young man, made partially deaf by a lifetime of ringing Notre Dame’s bells. He talks about his desire to go to the Feast of Fools with Notre Dame’s statues of saints and gargoyles. Frollo arrives and asks him who he is speaking to, reminding him that the stone statues cannot talk. They recite the biblical story of the Flight into Egypt, after which Frollo complains about Paris's gypsies and the Feast of Fools ("Sanctuary Part I"). Quasimodo offers to protect him outside; Frollo declines, warning him that he would be shunned if he were to go out in public ("Sanctuary Part II"). Quasimodo sings to himself, yearning to spend one day outside Notre Dame ("Out There").
In the streets of Paris, the Feast of Fools begins, led by Clopin, the gypsy king ("Topsy Turvy Part I"). Meanwhile, Captain Phoebus, the new head of Notre Dame's Cathedral Guard, arrives in Paris from the front lines. Frollo welcomes him, telling him they must rid the city of gypsies ("Rest and Recreation"). Clopin introduces Esmeralda, a gypsy dancer ("Rhythm of the Tambourine")—Quasimodo, Frollo, and Phoebus are all entranced by her. After that, Clopin holds a contest to crown the King of Fools, the ugliest person in Paris. Encouraged by Esmeralda, Quasimodo enters, immediately winning the contest ("Topsy Turvy Part II") before being humiliated by the crowd. Esmeralda rescues Quasimodo with a magic trick before Frollo intervenes. He scolds Quasimodo; the two return to Notre Dame, followed by Esmeralda ("Sanctuary Part III").
Frollo finds Esmeralda, confronting her; after a brief argument, he relents, allowing her to stay. Esmeralda prays to God to help the less fortunate ("God Help the Outcasts"). Phoebus finds Esmeralda; they argue, Phoebus telling her not to fight unwinnable battles, to which she retorts that she cannot help it.
Esmeralda heads to the bell tower, finding Quasimodo there. The two quickly befriend each other ("Top of the World"), Quasimodo ringing the bells of Notre Dame for her. Frollo runs up to the tower, angry at Quasimodo for ringing the bells at the wrong time. He is shocked by Esmeralda's presence, thinking she had left. He offers her shelter so he may save her soul, but she rejects his offer, saying that she sees the way Frollo looks at her. This infuriates Frollo, who orders Phoebus to escort her from Notre Dame and arrest her if she sets foot in it again. Frollo warns Quasimodo that Esmeralda is a dangerous person sent from Hell and to ignore any lustful feelings he may feel towards her. Yet, having developed such feelings for Esmeralda himself, Frollo roams the streets nightly, one night discovering Esmeralda, Clopin and multiple other gypsies partying with Phoebus; he is unable to look away as Esmeralda dances and kisses Phoebus ("Tavern Song (Thai Mol Piyas)”). Meanwhile, in the bell tower, Quasimodo reflects on seeing couples in love from his tower and how he never thought himself worthy of love until meeting Esmeralda ("Heaven’s Light").
Frollo prays, begging the Virgin Mary to save him by either condemning Esmeralda to Hell or giving her to him ("Hellfire"). The next day, he approaches King Louis XII asking for special powers to stop a 'gypsy witch' to protect Paris, which he is granted. With his new powers, he instigates a citywide manhunt for Esmeralda which leads him to a brothel known for hiding gypsies. When the brothel's owner claims ignorance, Frollo orders Phoebus to burn the brothel down, an order which Phoebus defies. As Frollo orders Phoebus's arrest. Esmeralda appears; a fight breaks loose. In the commotion, Frollo stabs Phoebus and frames Esmeralda for it; she uses a magic trick to escape. Frollo continues the hunt, while Quasimodo grows increasingly worried about Esmeralda’s whereabouts ("Esmeralda").
Esmeralda returns to Notre Dame, asking Quasimodo to hide the injured Phoebus. She gives Quasimodo a woven band and leaves. Inspired by the story of Saint Aphrodisius and encouraged by the saints, Quasimodo deciphers the woven band as a map and resolves to help her ("Flight into Egypt"). Frollo returns to Notre Dame, asking Quasimodo where Esmeralda is; Quasimodo responds that he doesn't know. Frollo appears to accept this, before a guard informs Frollo that they know where Esmeralda is. Frollo tells Quasimodo that they will now be successful in capturing Esmeralda and leaves. ("Esmeralda (Reprise)")
Using the map, Quasimodo and Phoebus go to warn the gypsies. ("Rest and Recreation (Reprise)") Initially, the gypsies attempt to kill the two, but they are saved by Esmeralda. ("Court of Miracles"). The two tell the gypsies Frollo will attack at dawn. The gypsies prepare to leave; Phoebus asks Esmeralda to go with her, the two expressing their love for each other as Quasimodo looks on, heartbroken. ("Heaven's Light (Reprise)/In a Place of Miracles"). Frollo suddenly enters, having followed Quasimodo, and arrests all present—only Clopin manages to escape. Frollo has the guards lock Quasimodo in the bell tower.
Frollo visits Esmeralda, telling her that he can save her if she accepts being with him. When Esmeralda refuses, he threatens Phoebus' life and attempts to rape her ("Sanctuary (Reprise)"). He halts when Esmeralda cries out in protest, allowing her to have a final conversation with Phoebus. Phoebus pleads for her to accept Frollo's offer to save herself, which Esmeralda refuses to do. They yearn together for a better future ("Someday"). Meanwhile, in the bell tower, the statues encourage Quasimodo to free himself and save Esmeralda; Quasimodo angrily denounces them, declaring that he will remain stoic until he dies ("Made of Stone").
At dawn, Esmeralda is tied to a pyre outside Notre Dame. Frollo sentences her to death, offering her one last chance to save herself, which she angrily rejects. He orders her pyre to be lit. Quasimodo swings down on a rope from the bell tower and takes Esmeralda back to Notre Dame, invoking Notre Dame's status as a sanctuary in an appeal for protection. Frollo orders the Cathedral Guard to retake the church by force. Clopin frees Phoebus, after which the two rally the people of Paris to fight against the guards. However, the guards still manage to break in. Quasimodo dumps the molten lead used for fixing the bells onto the guards to stop them. Esmeralda thanks Quasimodo for being a good friend before dying. Frollo enters and asks Quasimodo if she is dead, which he broken-heartedly confirms. Relieved, Frollo tells Quasimodo that they are finally free of her poison. Quasimodo angrily throws Frollo off the tower of Notre Dame to his death.
Devastated, Quasimodo realizes that everyone he has ever loved is now dead. Phoebus arrives, finding out about Esmeralda's death. Phoebus tries to carry her body away but is unable to due to his injuries. Quasimodo then carries Esmeralda away.
Years later, two skeletons are discovered in the crypts of Notre Dame, one holding the other in its arms – the former has a woven band around its neck and the other has a crooked spinal column. When it was attempted to detach the two, the latter crumbles to dust. The company finally addresses the audience with a question asked at the beginning of the show—"What makes a monster and what makes a man?" ("Finale")
Der Glöckner von Notre Dame Edit
- Act I
- "Die Glocken Notre Dames" ("The Bells of Notre Dame") – Clopin, Archdeacon, Frollo & Chorus
- "Zuflucht" ("Sanctuary") – Frollo, Quasimodo, Antoine, Charles & Loni
- "Draußen" ("Out There") – Quasimodo
- "Tanz auf dem Seil" ("Balancing Act") – Clopin, Esmeralda & Gypsies
- "Ein bißchen Freude" ("Rest and Recreation") – Phoebus
- "Drunter drüber" ("Topsy Turvy") – Clopin, Quasimodo & Crowd
- "Zuflucht II" ("Sanctuary II") - Frollo & Quasimodo
- "Die Glocken Notre Dames II" ("The Bells of Notre Dame II") - Clopin, Priests
- "Helf den Verstoß'nen" ("God Help the Outcasts") – Esmeralda, Quasimodo & Parisians
- "Hoch über der Welt" ("Top of the World") – Esmeralda, Quasimodo, Antoine, Charles & Loni
- "Das Licht des Himmels" ("Heaven's Light") – Quasimodo
- "Das Feuer der Hölle" ("Hellfire") – Frollo & Priests
- "Die Glocken Notre Dames III" ("The Bells of Notre Dame III") - Clopin & Frollo
- "Esmeralda" – Frollo, Quasimodo, Phoebus, Esmeralda, Clopin & Soldiers
- Act II
- "Trommeln in der Stadt" ("City Under Siege") – Clopin & Parisians
- "Ein Mann wie du" ("A Guy Like You") – Antoine, Charles, Loni & Quasimodo
- "Weil du liebst" ("Out of Love") – Quasimodo, Phoebus, Antoine, Charles & Loni
- "Tanz der Zigeuner" ("Dance of the Gypsies") - Orchestra
- "Weil du liebst ("Out of Love (Reprise)") – Phoebus, Esmeralda & Quasimodo
- "Die Glocken Notre Dames IV" ("The Bells of Notre Dame IV") - Clopin & Frollo
- "Wie aus Stein" ("Made of Stone") – Quasimodo, Loni, Charles & Antoine
- "Einmal" ("Someday") – Esmeralda, Phoebus & Parisians
- "Grand Finale" – Full Company
The Hunchback of Notre Dame Edit
- Act I
- "Olim" – Congregation
- "The Bells of Notre Dame" – Clopin, Frollo, Jehan, Father Dupin, Quasimodo, Congregation
- "Sanctuary" – Frollo, Quasimodo
- "Out There" – Quasimodo
- "Topsy Turvy (Part 1)" – Clopin, Quasimodo, Congregation
- "Rest and Recreation" – Phoebus, Frollo, Congregation
- "Rhythm of the Tambourine" – Esmeralda, Clopin, Phoebus, Frollo, Quasimodo, Congregation
- "Topsy Turvy (Part 2)" – Clopin, Congregation
- "Sanctuary II" – Frollo, Quasimodo
- "The Bells of Notre Dame (Reprise)" − Esmeralda, Congregation
- "God Help the Outcasts" – Esmeralda, Congregation
- "Top of the World" – Esmeralda, Quasimodo, Congregation
- "The Tavern Song" (Thai Mol Piyas)" – Esmeralda, Frollo, Clopin, Congregation, Gypsies
- "Heaven's Light" – Quasimodo
- "Hellfire" – Frollo, Congregation
- "Esmeralda" – Frollo, Phoebus, Quasimodo, Congregation
- Act II
- "Entr'acte" – Congregation
- "Flight Into Egypt" – Quasimodo, Saint Aphrodisius, Congregation
- "Esmeralda (Reprise)" – Frollo
- "Rest and Recreation (Reprise)" – Phoebus, Quasimodo
- "The Court of Miracles" – Clopin, Gypsies
- "In a Place of Miracles" – Phoebus, Esmeralda, Quasimodo, Clopin, Gypsies
- "The Bells of Notre Dame (Reprise II)" – Congregation
- "Someday" – Esmeralda, Phoebus
- "While the City Slumbered" – Congregation
- "Made of Stone – Quasimodo, Congregation
- "Judex Crederis" − Congregation
- "Kyrie Eleison" − Frollo, Phoebus, Quasimodo, Congregation
- "Top of the World (Reprise)" − Esmeralda
- "Esmeralda (Frollo Reprise)" − Frollo, Congregation
- "Finale Ultimo" – Frollo, Quasimodo, Esmeralda, Phoebus, Clopin, Congregation
Source: Variety Magazine
Differences from the original 1996 filmEdit
- The gargoyles' names have been changed from Victor, Hugo and Laverne to Charles, Antoine and Loni. The gargoyles' comedy in the musical is greatly toned down; they sing in many more songs, and they are also firmly established as figments of Quasimodo's imagination.
- Neither Esmeralda's goat Djali nor Phoebus' horse Achilles appear in the stage musical.
- Esmeralda is shown a way out of Notre Dame rather than Quasimodo climbing down, holding her.
- When narrating, Clopin appears as a crippled old beggar and no longer uses puppets.
- The song from the film "The Court of Miracles" is replaced by a dance number called "Dance of the Gypsies".
- Frollo's past is expanded to note that he was once a priest, harking back to his position as the archdeacon in the original novel.
- Esmeralda dies at the end.
- Frollo is thrown off the cathedral by Quasimodo, instead of falling from the crumbling gargoyle fixture.
- "Sanctuary", the song that consists of Quasimodo and Frollo that played before "Out There" is expanded and the Gargoyles are added in the number.
- It is the archdeacon who brings Phoebus to Quasimodo instead of Esmeralda.
The set for the original production utilized many large hydraulically controlled boxes that can be placed at every conceivable height and level, and used highly detailed photographic images. The finale of act one shows Phoebus' plummet from a bridge over the Seine after being shot by an arrow.
The bell effect is produced live in the orchestra pit with both chimes and at times electric keyboards and routed through the console, a Cadac J-Type with motorized faders. Tony Meola noted that the Berlin theatre was "really quite good acoustically for a large musical. It's not too reverberant, yet reverberant enough to make the orchestra sound good and you can hear the words of the songs."
The Hunchback of Notre Dame is set in medieval Paris with the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris as a central location. "I try to draw from elements of the period," says Jerome Sirlin, who spent a few days in Paris taking photographs of the Seine and of Notre Dame and the views from the cathedral. "The pictures served as source material," he explains, noting that he used versions of the cathedral's gargoyles and other architectural elements to capture the essence of Notre Dame. "You can create a lot of movement with the projections. The audience believes what you tell them if you do it right."
There are projections used in every scene of the show. "Sometimes they are more for scenery or an effect, a texture or an image," continues Sirlin. "There are a variety of ways of working with the large-format projectors and defining your gobos a little differently." An incredibly beautiful use of the projections is a scene that takes place on a bridge above, and then in, the Seine."
The Variety Magazine reviewer noted that "The prevailing tone, indeed, is far and away the most somber of the three Disney film-to-stage shows yet." He wrote that "The design is likely to be the show's talking point in any language, coupling as it does the best of British and American talent with a new $ 100 million dollar-plus playhouse specifically adapted to accommodate the demands of the piece. The aquamarine stage curtain, Gothic tracery already encoded within it, rises to reveal set designer Heidi Ettinger's ever-shifting array of cubes that join with Jerome Sirlin's projections to conjure the medieval world of the Parisian belltower inhabited by Sarich's misshapen orphan Quasimodo, his unyielding master Frollo (Norbert Lamla) and a trio of very chatty gargoyles...the music tilts towards the generic."
- ↑ Simonson, Robert and Lefkowitz, David. "Disney's Berlin 'Hunchback'Will Rehearse in New York in Spring 1999" playbill.com, November 10, 1998
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 "'Der Glöckner von Notre Dame'" thisdayindisneyhistory.com, accessed January 28, 2011
- ↑ "The Hunchback of Notre Dame," Find Articles at BNET.com, Variety
- ↑ "'Der Glöckner von Notre Dame', Production History" jameslapine.com, accessed January 28, 2011
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 5.2 Wolf, Matt. "The Hunchback Of Notre Dame (Der Glockner Von Notre Dame)", Variety Magazine, June 21, 1999 - June 27, 1999, Section: Legit Reviews; Abroad; p. 86
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 Geitner, Paul. "Disney's 'Hunchback' Goes to Stage", Associated Press Online, May 26, 1999, Section: Entertainment, television and culture, Dateline: Berlin
- ↑ "'The Hunchback of Notre Dame' Cast Album" castalbumdb.com, accessed January 28, 2011
- ↑ Haun, Harry. "Playbill On Opening Night: 'The Little Mermaid' — Starfish Express" playbill.com, January 11, 2008
- ↑ Cerasaro, Pat. "Alan Menken Interview". Broadwayworld.com, November 15, 2010
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 Disney "The Hunchback of Notre Dame Stage production recording", at the musicalschwartz website
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 Lampert-Creaux, Ellen."Bells Are Ringing" livedesignonline.com, October 1, 1999
- Official Der Glöckner von Notre Dame website (Archive)
- Official Der Glöckner von Notre Dame website (Archive)
- Description of the technical design of the original production]
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